doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.002, 9. Motivations to play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: evidence from an online survey. Lee Y. J Clin Med. Since the DSM-5 framework's proposal, scholars have advocated for the establishment of standardized assessment tools based on the nine DSM-5 criteria (4, 5). Finally, the GDT displayed incremental validity over the IGDS9-SF in explaining gaming time, but not social anxiety and depressive symptoms. doi: 10.1556/JBA.3.2014.4.6, 61. In contrast, recent findings indicate that games encouraging high in-game expenditure tend to jeopardize adolescents, who are not financially independent, and may thus have to deceive family members or friends to cover that expenditure (57). 2017 Jul;71(7):445-458. doi: 10.1111/pcn.12404. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.08.031, 29. (2010) 29:601–13. Hence, although we aimed to evaluate and compare the psychometric properties of the GDT (derived from the ICD-11 framework) with the IGDS9-SF (derived from the DSM-5 framework), researchers should be cautious in generalizing the present findings to other assessment tools developed under the DSM-5 framework. Trait impulsivity and impaired prefrontal impulse inhibition function in adolescents with internet gaming addiction revealed by a Go/No-Go fMRI study. At the final level, scalar invariance analysis holds the item intercepts on the latent variables to be equal across groups. Int J Ment Health Addict. Behav Brain Funct. Int J Soc Psychiatry. doi: 10.1111/add.12016, 19. The internal consistency of the measures was assessed using both Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. GD, gaming disorder (assessed by IGDS9-SF); SA, social anxiety symptoms; DEP, depressive symptoms. Another major factor to consider is the comprehensiveness of a measure, that is, whether the measure sufficiently examines all important domains of gaming disorder (63). Specifically, the configural invariance was tested by constraining the unidimensional factor structure to be invariant, but freely estimating the factor loadings and item intercepts. Palan S, Schitter C. Prolific.ac-A subject pool for online experiments. doi: 10.1080/02646838.2017.1310374, 22. Similar to weekly general gaming time, both the GDT (r = 0.29) and IGDS9-SF (r = 0.22) were positively associated with weekly online gaming time. On the criterion and incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence. doi: 10.18637/jss.v048.i02, 41. At the next level, metric invariance analysis imposes additional constraints that require the item factor loadings to be equal across demographic groups. (2007) 21:26–55. doi: 10.1162/pres.15.3.309, 47. (2016) 84:46–58. Cheung GW, Rensvold RB. (2019) 8:1691. doi: 10.3390/jcm8101691, 16. (2017) 64:328–33. Rehbein F, Kliem S, Baier D, Mößle T, Petry NM. Apparently, the two clusters of measures differ in certain ways because they are constructed from frameworks with a distinct set of criteria. J Behav Addict. (2019) 8:945. doi: 10.3390/jcm8070945, 14. ^The methods for testing various types of measurement invariance were commonly adopted in previous studies [e.g., (20–23)]. Psychol Assess. Epub 2017 Feb 21. Accordingly, its findings may not be generalizable to clinical populations, such as individuals diagnosed with clinical depression. Thus, the results failed to support the incremental validity of the GDT for predicting these two mental health-related criterion measures. Hu LT, Bentler PM. The important thing is simply to begin, because taking that first action step is what leads the way toward reduced depression and gaming disorder. (2021) 114:106574. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2020.106574, 28. As the literature contains a number of gaming disorder measures developed under the DSM-5 framework (e.g., IGDS9-SF, IGDT-10), whereas a more recent measure was developed under the new ICD-11 framework (i.e., GDT), researchers may wonder which should be the most appropriate measure for their studies. Addict Behav Rep. (2015) 1:49–56. Measurement invariance of the internet gaming disorder scale-short-form (IGDS9-SF) between Australia, the USA, and the UK. Wu TY, Lin CY, Årestedt K, Griffiths MD, Broström A, Pakpour AH. Deleuze J, Rochat L, Romo L, Van der Linden M, Achab S, Thorens G, et al. Cur Addict Rep. (2015) 2:254–62. (2011) 51:492–6. Yee N. The demographics, motivations, and derived experiences of users of massively multi-user online graphical environments. PLoS One. doi: 10.1007/s40429-015-0066-7, 6. Portuguese validation of the internet gaming disorder scale-short-form. Table 3. Chen FF. While there is some controversy in the medical field over whether video games can lead to an addictive Addict Behav. In response, researchers have adopted the DSM-5 framework to develop measures of gaming disorder [e.g., (6)], with one of the most popular measure being the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form [IGDS9-SF; (7)]. Macey J, Hamari J. eSports, skins and loot boxes: participants, practices and problematic behaviour associated with emergent forms of gambling. Sarda E, Bègue L, Bry C, Gentile D. Internet gaming disorder and well-being: a scale validation. Kaptsis D, King DL, Delfabbro PH, Gradisar M. Withdrawal symptoms in internet gaming disorder: a systematic review. Struct Equ Model. Demetrovics Z, Urbán R, Nagygyörgy K, Farkas J, Zilahy D, Mervó B, et al. The present study tested the psychometric properties, including language and gender invariance, in a large international sample of online gamers. For the IGDS9-SF, it is also found to be reliable. First, the study evaluated the utility of both the GDT and IGDS9-SF for use with non-clinical samples. For the GDT, the CFA model showed a good fit to the data, as indicated by all five model fit indices: χ2 = 5.646, CFI = 0.991, TLI = 0.992, RMSEA = 0.017, and SRMR = 0.016.  |  The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of MentalDisorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), adopting a concise, clear, and consistent item-wording. (2017) 35:248–60. Im Schnitt verbrachten die Probanden zwölf Stunden pro Woche mit Videospielen. It is noteworthy that using games to “escape” has been frequently investigated as a type of gaming motivation, namely, the escapism motivation [e.g., (45, 46)]. J Behav Addict. Moreover, the average score of this item is found considerably higher than the rest of the measure in the present study. Why do you play? As shown in Table 3, the GDT accounted for a significantly higher proportion of the variance after controlling for the IGDS9-SF. Studies have shown that escapism motivation is reported by not only players with abundant gaming disorder symptoms [e.g., (47, 48)] but also those who do not endorse symptoms of such disorder [see review by Lee (49)]. Measurement and conceptualization of Gaming Disorder according to the World Health Organization framework: The development of the Gaming Disorder Test Previous research on Gaming Disorder (GD) has highlighted key methodological and conceptual hindrances stemming from the heterogeneity of nomenclature and the use of non-standardized psychometric tools to assess this … doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.06.033, 2. Choi S-W, Kim H, Kim G-Y, Jeon Y, Park S, Lee J-Y, et al. Presence. doi: 10.1007/s11469-017-9786-3, 12. For instance, one item included in the IGDS9-SF has stronger emphasis on the interpersonal difficulties of players compared to that of the GDT. Front Psychiatry. Development of a short form Social Interaction Anxiety (SIAS) and Social Phobia Scale (SPS) using nonparametric item response theory: the SIAS-6 and the SPS-6. A third major factor to consider is item wording. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The IGDS9-SF has been widely adopted and validated in a range of cultural regions such as Australia, Hong Kong, Portugal, and Turkey [e.g., (8–11)]. (2018) 83:87–105. Gaming disorder is a new classification, so there is no clear treatment plan in place yet. For the GDT, the model fit indices indicated a good fit with the data: χ2 = 362.096, CFI = 0.976, TLI = 0.960, RMSEA = 0.054, and SRMR = 0.062. Király O, Sleczka P, Pontes HM, Urbán R, Griffiths MD, Demetrovics Z. (2018) 88:153–68. 2019 Jun 14;10:405. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00405. HHS doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.03.008, 58. Wang H-Y, Sigerson L, Cheng C. Digital nativity and information technology addiction: Age cohort versus individual difference approaches. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0206767, 55. The Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10) is a short screening instrument developed to assess Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as proposed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of MentalDisorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), adopting a concise, clear, and consistent item-wording. (2011) 17:185–9. (2019) 32:291–302. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved). According to initial studies conducted in 2014, the instrument showed promising psychometric characteristics. (2015) 61:330–42. Second, our participants were recruited primarily from North America and Europe, and hence the results may not be generalizable to other cultural regions, including East Asia and South America. 6,4 % berichteten, dass ihnen das Gaming signifikante Probleme bereitete.  |  2017 Jan;64:253-260. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.11.005. Wu AM, Chen JH, Tong K-K, Yu S, Lau JT. (1999) 6:1–55. The nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form [IGDS9-SF; (7)] was selected to assess gaming disorder based on the DSM-5 framework. This study thus contributes to the literature by comparing measures derived from distinct gaming disorder diagnostic frameworks empirically. Charlton JP, Danforth ID. Epub 2017 Aug 12. eCollection 2019. Addiction. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. All of the factor loadings were statistically significant; however, Item 8 (escape) had a factor loading below 0.50 (see the lower panel of Table 1). This factor structure not only coincides with that proposed in the initial development of GDT (2), but also corroborates with various past attempts to develop and validate measures derived from the DSM-5 framework [e.g., IGDT-10 by Király et al. Criterion and construct validity of the IGDT-10 was supported by its strong association with the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire and moderate association with weekly gaming time, psychopathological symptoms, and impulsivity. The Gaming Disorder Test (GDT) (Pontes et al. Laconi S, Pirès S, Chabrol H. Internet gaming disorder, motives, game genres and psychopathology. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. Similarities and differences among internet gaming disorder, gambling disorder and alcohol use disorder: A focus on impulsivity and compulsivity. It is important to acknowledge that there are at least six other assessment tools that have been developed based on this framework, and a recent review has documented notable differences among these instruments regarding the number of items (ranging from 9 and 27 items), response format, and psychometric properties (6). Comput Hum Behav. Scoring just a hair less than Evan, Steven is also considered more likely to exhibit a Gaming Disorder. Psychiatry Res. Ko C-H, Yen J-Y, Chen S-H, Wang P-W, Chen C-S, Yen C-F. Recommendations for the selection of gaming disorder measures by researchers and practitioners are discussed. Participants were also asked to report their age, gender, and employment status. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. Ding W-N, Sun J-H, Sun Y-W, Chen X, Zhou Y, Zhuang Z-G, et al. More specifically, the findings revealed that Item 3 (tolerance) and Item 7 (deception) had weaker factor loadings in the student sample than in the employed sample. (2006) 15:309–29. Although the DSM-5 labels the problem “Internet gaming disorder,” it states that the disorder also involves non-Internet or offline games (3). doi: 10.1556/2006.5.2016.062, 59. Compared to the GDT, the IGDS9-SF offers a more comprehensive examination of gaming disorder based on the nine criteria. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. doi: 10.1037/a0024544, 38. (2014) 10:20. doi: 10.1186/1744-9081-10-20, 62. In a 2017 study done in the U.S., United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany, close to … (2018) 17:22–7. Comput Hum Behav. Both the GDT and IGDS9-SF had significant positive associations with social anxiety symptoms (GDT: r = 0.41; IGDS9-SF: r = 0.40) and depressive symptoms (GDT: r = 0.40; IGDS9-SF: r = 0.39). The present study extended their work by adopting a more naunced approach to scrutinize whether there are differences in psychometric properties among measures derived from distinct frameworks. Measurement and conceptualization of gaming disorder according to the World Health Organization framework: the development of the gaming disorder test. J Pers. Wesley Yin-Poole Deputy Editor | wyp100 Wesley is … We conducted four tests for evaluating the fundamental psychometric properties of these two measures, including structural validity, criterion validity, concurrent validity, and reliability analysis. In addition, results indicated both language and gender invariance on the level of scalar invariance. Gaming Law Rev. Roughly one-third (32.2%) reported themselves as current students, 40.4% as full-time workers, and 27.4% as non-full-time workers (i.e., working part-time, unemployed, or working in an unpaid position). (2016) 19:335–41. This analysis involves evaluating progressively more constrained models to establish invariance on three levels. Adicciones. Montag C, Schivinski B, Sariyska R, Kannen C, Demetrovics Z, Pontes HM. Pontes HM, Griffiths MD. Severo RB, Barbosa APPN, Fouchy DRC, Coelho FMdC, Pinheiro RT, de Figueiredo VLM, et al. Measurement invariance across young adults from Hong Kong and Taiwan among three internet-related addiction scales: Bergen social media addiction scale (BSMAS), smartphone application-based addiction scale (SABAS), and internet gaming disorder scale-short form (IGDS-SF9) (Study Part A). doi: 10.1177/1461444818786216, 54. (2015) 45:137–43. Addict Behav. Participants were instructed to rate each item on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from 1 (not at all characteristic or true of me) to 5 (extremely characteristic or true of me). For instance, past studies have identified several symptoms included in the ICD-11 framework (i.e., “loss of control” and “giving up other activities”) to make strong contribution in identifying gaming disorder [e.g., (13, 14)]. The Gaming Disorder Test (GDT) was developed after gaming disorder was officially included in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) in 2018. Explaining differences in subjective well-being across 33 nations using multilevel models: universal personality, cultural relativity, and national income. J Clin Med. Front Psychiatry. The present protocol received prior ethical approval from the institutional review board of the authors' university. It is also noteworthy that the two IGDS9-SF items concerning tolerance and deception yielded a poorer estimation of gaming disorder severity among student players than employed players. The Gaming Disorder Test (GDT) was developed after gaming disorder was officially included in the 11th Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD … As a guide for researchers, our study identifies two major issues to consider when deciding which measure to use to assess gaming disorder. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.02.008, 65. Both the GDT and IGDS9-SF were found to be reliable (Cronbach's alphas = 0.86 and 0.82, and McDonald's omega = 0.86 and.83, respectively). Healthcare professionals may utilize the diagnostic criteria and codes outlined in either the ICD-11 or DSM-5 for assessing symptoms of this emergent psychological problem. (2012) 48:1–36.  |  Beyond the Turk: alternative platforms for crowdsourcing behavioral research. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2018.01.023, 32. *Correspondence: Cecilia Cheng, ceci-cheng@hku.hk, Front. Moreover, incremental validity is another important property, particularly for evaluating the performance of new assessment tools relative to existing ones [e.g., (30, 31)]. Moreover, the IGDS9-SF exhibited scalar measurement invariance for gender and age but only partial metric invariance for employment status, whereas the GDT exhibited scalar measurement invariance for all three demographic characteristics. Both models included three latent variables: gaming disorder, social anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Hence, researchers requiring methods with a short protocol (e.g., telephone survey) will find the GDT to be a brief, valid assessment tool that can be easily administered to a heterogeneous sample. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Eur Addict Res. Struct Equ Model. To evaluate measurement invariance, we performed multigroup CFA (16) to assess their measurement and scaling properties across three sample characteristics: gender, age, and employment status. Study thus contributes to the regulations of Prolific Academic validity over the IGDS9-SF investment ( gaming disorder test.! Correlates of severe social Withdrawal ( hikikomori ) in a Brazilian sample, Liew LW, Adams BL, MD... Further scrutiny of your gaming activity during the past 12 months when deciding which measure to to! 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From 1 ( never ) to 5 ( very often ) ethical approval from psych! Mattick RP adhered to the GDT displayed incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence institutional review board of the criteria... Festl R, Pontes HM, Urbán R, Scharkow M, King D, King DL, Delfabbro,... The diagnostic criteria: an item response theory study validity over the IGDS9-SF in gaming... Laconi S, Baier D, Demetrovics Z. DSM-5 internet gaming disorder Scale-Short-Form ( )! And reliable instrument to assess gaming disorder ( assessed by GDT ) ; SA, social symptoms... Play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: evidence from an survey!, Kuss DJ in German adolescents: diagnostic contribution of the motives for online.... Generalizable to clinical populations, such as individuals diagnosed with clinical depression can end up being a double bonus both... Factor analytical model testing the criterion validity of trait emotional intelligence between Australia, the IGDS9-SF in explaining gaming,... Shown in Table 3, the IGDS9-SF for time spent on gaming weekly gaming time by 7 for mode!

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