[2], Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Xanthine is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. Xanthine definition, a crystalline, nitrogenous compound, C5H4N4O2, related to uric acid, occurring in urine, blood, and certain animal and vegetable tissues. Drinking lots of water is also important. Padgett, J.W. It has a role as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite. [15][16][17], InChI=1S/C5H4N4O2/c10-4-2-3(7-1-6-2)8-5(11)9-4/h1H,(H3,6,7,8,9,10,11), Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, "Leukotrienes: underappreciated mediators of innate immune responses", "Caffeine analogs: structure-activity relationships at adenosine receptors", "Carbonaceous meteorites contain a wide range of extraterrestrial nucleobases", "NASA Researchers: DNA Building Blocks Can Be Made in Space", "DNA Building Blocks Can Be Made in Space, NASA Evidence Suggests", 1-Methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propane, 1-Benzyl-4-(2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl)piperidine, Beclometasone/formoterol/glycopyrronium bromide, Budesonide/glycopyrronium bromide/formoterol, Fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol, Indacaterol/glycopyrronium bromide/mometasone, 4'-O-β-D-Glucosyl-9-O-(6''-deoxysaccharosyl)olivil, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xanthine&oldid=994523177, Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Articles with changed DrugBank identifier, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 7-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)-1,3-dimethyl-3,7-dihydro-1, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 04:10. Daly, M.T. Xanthine (/ˈzænθiːn/ or /ˈzænθaɪn/; archaically xanthic acid; systematic name 3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione) is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. Read more about the prescription drug XANTHINE DERIVATIVES - ORAL. Some well-known natural xanthines include caffeine , theobromine , and theophylline . C5-H4-N4-O2. [7], 1S/C5H4N4O2/c10-4-2-3(7-1-6-2)8-5(11)9-4/h1H,(H3,6,7,8,9,10,11), UJ. At least half of the world’s population drinks tea, which contains caffeine and small amounts of theophylline and theobromine [ 1 ]. [2], Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines) are a group of alkaloids commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in the treatment of asthma or influenza symptoms. Noun. Chemical Formula. Xanthine, vroeger ook aangeduid als xanthinezuur en volgens de IUPAC 3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dion, is een purinebase die voorkomt in de meeste organen en weefsels van praktisch alle organismen. Hide, C.E. [2] Methylxanthines induce gastric acid and pepsin secretions in the gastrointestinal tract. Müller, M. Shamim, P.G. Xanthines zijn purinederivaten en worden in zeer kleine hoeveelheden gevonden in nucleïnezuren. A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. Het therapeutische niveau is 10-20 microgram/mL bloed. Methylated xanthine compounds such as caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline are used for their bronchodilator effects. organic compound - any compound of carbon and another element or a radical. xanthines: n.pl a family of chemicals that includes caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, which stimulate the central nervous system, act on the kidneys to produce diuresis, stimulate cardiac muscle, and relax smooth muscle. 3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione. Xanthine definition is - a feebly basic compound C5H4N4O2 that occurs especially in animal or plant tissue, is derived from guanine and hypoxanthine, and yields uric acid on oxidation; also : any of various derivatives of xanthine (such as methylxanthine). See more. The xanthine derivatives are agents that resemble natural occurring xanthines such as caffeine, theobromine and methylxanthines. Xanthine, vroeger ook aangeduid als xanthinezuur en volgens de IUPAC 3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dion, is een purinebase die voorkomt in de meeste organen en weefsels van praktisch alle organismen. Xanthine CAS registry number (Chemical Abstracts Service) 0000069-89-6. xanthine. These compounds are alkaloids and include such common mild stimulants as caffeine and theobromine, which is found in chocolate. Daly, I. xanthine - crystalline oxidation product of the metabolism of nucleoproteins; precursor of uric acid; found in many organs and in urine organic compound - any compound of … De effecten zijn echter breed en de therapeutische breedte is smal waardoor ze niet het meestgebruike astmamedicijn zijn. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 23 nov 2020 om 10:32. xanthine[′zan‚thēn] (organic chemistry) C5H4N4O2 A toxic yellow-white purine base that is found in blood and urine, and occasionally in plants; it is a powder, insoluble in water and acids, soluble in caustic soda; sublimes when heated; used in medicine and as a chemical intermediate. Martins, H. Melbostad, W.H. Choi, M.T. The enzyme is present in two forms, one with dehydrogenase activity (xanthine dehydrogenase) and the other with oxidase activity. Consumer information about the medication XANTHINE DERIVATIVES - ORAL , includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Xanthine derivative. Context examples . Chemically, xanthine is a purine. Xanthine also occurs in tea, as does caffeine, another purine compound. [13][14] In August 2011, a report, based on NASA studies with meteorites found on Earth, was published suggesting xanthine and related organic molecules, including the DNA and RNA components adenine and guanine, were found in outer space. Shamim, W.L. Marques, L. Zheng, N. Poulakis, J. Guzman, U. Costabel, M. Peters-Golden, C. Canetti, P. Mancuso, M.J. Coffey, A. Sunshine, E.M. Laska, C.E. Verbindingen waarvan het centrale deel van het molecuul gevormd wordt door de twee ringen in xanthine, worden aangeduid als xanthines. A xanthine, also spelled xanthin, is one of a group of alkaloids which include caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, a precursor of uric acid. (Aminophylline, NCI Thesaurus) An orally available, non-purine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase with uric acid lowering activity. Gemethyleerde xanthinederivaten zijn cafeïne (in koffie en gewone thee), paraxanthine, theofylline en theobromine (vooral in chocolade). From French xanthine, ultimately from Ancient Greek ξανθός (xanthós, “yellow”), because xanthine is yellowish-white. This xanthine most likely exerts its effect by inhibiting cAMP or cGMP phosphodiesterases, thereby increasing levels of the second messenger cAMP or cGMP intracellularly. Therefore, xanthine contains two carbonyl carbon atoms while hypoxanthine contains only one carbonyl carbon atom. Xanthine is produced naturally by both plants and animals. Sommige mensen hebben een tekort aan dit enzym waardoor xanthine niet (voldoende) kan worden omgezet in urinezuur. Er is daarom een groot aantal synthetische xanthines ontwikkeld, en lang niet altijd met een of meer methylgroepen, in de zoektocht naar grotere selectiviteit voor het enzym fosfodiesterase of de subtypes van de adenosinereceptor. Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative. Xanthines vormen een groep alkaloïden die veel gebruikt worden vanwege de stimulerende effecten en als bronchodilatoren, vooral in het behandelen van astma. In het centraal zenuwstelsel stimuleren zij alertheid, het ademhalingscentrum, en worden ze toegepast ter bestrijding van apneu bij kinderen. [2], Methylated xanthines (methylxanthines), which include caffeine, aminophylline, IBMX, paraxanthine, pentoxifylline, theobromine, and theophylline, affect not only the airways but stimulate heart rate, force of contraction, and cardiac arrhythmias at high concentrations. Borea, WO patent 1985002540, 22 maart 1989 toegekend, US patent 4288433, 4 september 1981 toegekend, https://nl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xanthine&oldid=57598751, Creative Commons Naamsvermelding/Gelijk delen, 1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione, 3,7-dihydro-3,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione. De tekst is beschikbaar onder de licentie. 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