The width of strip varies from 10 to 15 metres and length varies from 90 m to 400 m. Strips are separated by low embankments or levees. ���/������F�0�A����� �� �Ϡ���$�)�p���.^(=ޯ?�!y��c.t��>1N��=fJg��� ?h����齒��:��)Ǎ�^EC�c#�܎e� ���K�Sj�酻�n!i���W����s��b}�&$W6�������]��V)��x5ŗ?v6��������1��N)���@?N�����NiH�,�^�i�s}��/Λ7ߨϡ ^����q\�tN��bo9!��+��(�BC*i�Q�!�v� Border irrigation systems are better suited for sloping fields than basin systems because water flows between dikes rather than ponded within basins. 0000013122 00000 n 0000005192 00000 n 0000014759 00000 n H��UK��0�����c�c����T��^V=���RHyt���c��q�"E����1�6q�E��� &�1��m81�qI�(�U1M���&�_�qǎ�p���T���}����9/1�� `������"�H��`.�P|Zz��eQ�m����+~E�W��������\#��ɜ����1�<7m^���{�R%e��,US��-_��lꇰ 9_hpn_jT�������cJms�c� .��rh����P$z�j��9a� =qȁG�4�HE-�&�/�N%�� �1��%��DS�E�Q��N@-@:��L�%�����������Tf�d̪Tq�sX�� �*�+gͣ�7���Gn4K)��]_�/W��8\��F�W� EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Border Rivers (NSW) Catchment Irrigation Profile was developed from a study to obtain regional and industry-based assessments of water use efficiency (WUE)1 and irrigation efficiency (IE)2. Consequently, in border trailer << /Size 202 /Info 166 0 R /Root 172 0 R /Prev 463274 /ID[<4df00a85980b859ae2a27c6d1e194263><4df00a85980b859ae2a27c6d1e194263>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 172 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 165 0 R /Outlines 152 0 R >> endobj 200 0 obj << /S 181 /O 276 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 201 0 R >> stream 0000009880 00000 n Most recently, furrow irrigation has become important because of the high cost of energy in pressurized irrigation … The equations of border irrigation are solved by the method of characteristics using a prescribed time increment. Download as PDF. The latter is used mainly to irrigate row crops and orchards. Furrow Irrigation Basin or Level Border Irrigation Wild Flood Irrigation Graded Border Irrigation Corrugation Irrigation The evaluation of existing border systems using a surface irrigation model showed that the irrigation conditions, comprising of inflow rate, border dimensions, and cut-off time, were diverse in tubewell and canal irrigated areas. Figure 4–6 Border irrigation in progress 4–8 Figure 4–7 Illustration of contour border irrigation 4–8 Figure 4–8 Tailwater outlet for a blocked-end border system 4–9 Figure 4–9 Field smoothing can be done by a land plane 4–12 Figure 4–10 Typical tailwater recovery and reuse system 4–13 Water is released at the field's high end and the borders guide the water down the slope as a shallow sheet that spreads out uniformly. Pedosphere 20(4): 419–426, 2010 ISSN 1002-0160/CN 32-1315/P c 2010 Soil Science Society of China Published by Elsevier Limited and Science Press Effect of Sprinkler and Border Irrigation on Topsoil Structure in Winter Wheat Field∗1 SUN Ze-Qiang1, 2∗, KANG Yao-Hu and JIANG Shu-Fang2 1Soil and Fertilizer Institute, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan 250100 (China) The border irrigation concept is to flush a large volume of water over a relatively flat field surface in a short period of time. 6.2. Introduction Although recession flow during irrigation has long been a subject of theoretical and experi- mental research, relatively little is known about it. The arrangement is as shown in Fig. 8.2 Border irrigation As in level-basin irrigation, design issues in border irrigation generally have to do with finding the optimum combination of design variables, notably, the length, flow rate, and cutoff time. Readily accessible irrigation data were collected from State Part 652 Irrigation Guide. 0000009858 00000 n ); qinshujing2010@126.com (S.Q. x��]K�\�q)Ҳ��^�^u9���;/�w�����4�@���� �e~EV�d�_�u6��$� �$]����t��{�)� B<�|�ѧ'�>Tb��ߟ{�|캿x�����j�Vbp{#�rP�^���{�X���ɯNƢ��0]��~w���Z�����O�bY�u"�gb�}0ڭ��{c����'�[��9���? 0000011369 00000 n 0000001409 00000 n H��y�O��-3r�q�}��F�c����l$�>�)�u� MO�'Bz�����0�&9��4�Z����҇��Y��-�� hq0�=8�0�l n������8w���2{����������a��b�V13!>��s w �ڊRL���-�~����EW�ԡVI�(]�Y�_�4�{V�.�n&�Y?���li����P��o5��=���HI� �Lf>�N�V��y�����k�viy�F��*�CPD�C6!J)N �߇n��b��j��o�? This is the goal of efficient irrigation: to ensure the greatest amount of water that is delivered to the farm is used by the crop rather than being lost to groundwater or off the farm as drainage. To optimize the design of border and check basin irrigation in the slopping land, field dimensions, slope and soil informa- tion were collected from 3 blocks of langha watershed of About this page ... Basin and border irrigation systems are similar in that both involve a uniform sheet of water flowing over the soil. Bunds or ridges are constructed around the areas forming basin within which irrigation water may be controlled. Border Strip Method: In this method a field is divided into number of strips. 1. 0000001876 00000 n }��z2+��z��b@�QN4w B� 0000012209 00000 n 9 Advantages and Disadvantages of Border or Check Basin Irrigation Systems By Riyo Posted on April 3, 2019. `���0H������;3�}}w�#����t9���]�g��~a'�NH�o�on�.�eĨ�_,��� ��R���*UJ�����|�\i�$|��Jh��|#� ���KN{�Me�7��˷v�z��=� .��N+R#���C0S#�0j�v-U��������ao���/�^�1]���}k����N�dU�H[�_�om�*�G�CD��Du�����`!��� ��NH�)t�����Dj�7*D�y�qT&����N�*���B��U^��;�イ�$ Ƒ�⯐m]z� N�)pE���3D���3D���3D���3D6e[g�p���3D���3D���3D����C���3D&�"K��"K��"K��"K��"���3�K��"K���!���"K��"K��"Sl��l���l���l���l��M��L��l���l���l���l���l����R�u��R�u��R�u��R�u~�R�u��W`)�:Cd)�:Cd)�:Cd)�:Cd)�:Cd�-��m�!��m���m�!��m�!�1�:C\�)��m�!��m�!��m�!��m�!��m�!��Yζ�Yʶ�Yʶ�Yʶ�ٔm�!0�Xʶ�Yʶ�Yʶ�Yʶ�Yζ�ٔi�#2��b�L�Ef�"�l�9�� �r@ʶ��f�̰Ef�"sl�y��Wd)�:Gd�-2�[�l9 e[�̲E��"�l���R�u��[d�-2��f��-(����sD��"\��l�� ��$[d�-2��a�̲EƖ4[H��"K��9"l�I��[d�-2��e�̱E��"c��-�l��I��[d�-2��e�̱E��"\��l���� ǖR�u��4[d�-2��c�̳E�"K��9"l�I���r�g�)�:Gd�-2��g�,pE���sD&�"�l�)��4[dl9 ��)�:G`�+��Xʶ��� 0000007521 00000 n `�Ț`�Ț`�Ț`�Ț`��MαE0pdM0pdM0pdM0p� ��b�+��8 �� 2���- �ș�2�r�Gf�+�0 2�� �șA2�� �șa� ��W`� �%2` ϑ50��Ț�sdM1L5@@�L�-2��f�̰Ef�"sl�y��Wdb`��-� �8zABh��[d�-2��g�,pE&��[d�-2� �r�`9G��-2��g�,pEG��"l�I��[d�-2���r 6W7f�,pE���"l�I��[d�-2��e��-h� ǃ ǽ7�3E&�"�l�)��4[d�-2��c�̳EƖ,[�†��P��"Sl�i��[d�-2��g�,pE��"c��-�a��܂�#�L���,[d�-2�Y���3E&�"�l��� ϖ�c�OՉ�0Od�-2�Y��l�`�L�E��"�l�����ƃ�,�y��O`r�� Center Pivot Irrigation. 0000012231 00000 n The Border Method of Irrigation. agronomy Article Comparison of Water- and Nitrogen-Use E ciency over Drip Irrigation with Border Irrigation Based on a Model Approach Yahui Wang 1, Sien Li 1,*, Hao Liang 2, Kelin Hu 3, Shujing Qin 1 and Hui Guo 1 1 Center for Agricultural Water Research in China, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China; yahuilan@163.com (Y.W. Jx\_�5LHk'�~���r(��\�[�TPE���F��U��?o�������} ��;B���uT�*5XV�0�뛏 ��l.��\�����j��������A�� IKzLV�^-�%vO�GS{#� ����&b3��?����EZ7�I������eX�ӀƵ�\���b�Ƹ1u�"�r���>*��q�:�����+�L�چC�Ы�X�p�1�������6|�� D�. 0000001387 00000 n 0000011110 00000 n border irrigation method. The strip 0000004318 00000 n 0000007779 00000 n 0000014735 00000 n 29 0 obj Another major variable, however, that does not appear in basin irrigation, is the slope of the field. 8e - Graded Border Irrigation Application Efficiency Analysis - Example (PDF; 28 KB) 8f - Field Irrigation Evaluation Example Guide - Form (PDF; 106 KB) 8g - Measurement of Soluble Salts (PDF; 21 KB) 0000013967 00000 n stream models of border irrigation recession. B��Bf�७�7F!.�#�����",F����5�0MT��-��z�೭Ұ���\m$L��E�����rI�mC��| �Y�� � !��( endstream endobj 180 0 obj 728 endobj 181 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 180 0 R >> stream Water is scattered throughout the land by a machine of sprinklers that move on wheeled towers in 360 degrees pattern or a circle that would move around the land and sprinkle water all over the soil and it is really efficient and effective and this procedure or system is well recommended in a lot of countries but mostly used in the USA. It is by far the most common form of irrigation throughout the world and has been practiced in many areas virtually unchanged for thousands of years.. 6Modes of Application-1 7. Set alert. This study aims to simulate border irrigation systems using the SIRMOD (surface irrigation simulation, evaluation and design, developed by Utah State University, Logan, UT, USA) software package under open- and closed-end conditions. in the world are contour irrigation, border irrigation, and furrow irrigation (Walker and Skogerboe, 1987). Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. The area between the ridges is flooded during irrigation. 0000002128 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� 0000013989 00000 n H��UKn�0=����D�?�� ��wA�E�*���:�}G Section 21 of 22 (21b - Choosing an Irrigation System) This Chapter Includes: Methods of applying water Effect of land slope Requirements, Considerations, Advantages/Disadvantages . In this method, the farm is divided into a number of strips which can be 3-20 metres wide and 100-400 metres long. 0000013100 00000 n osf83�C�{.����^/�KNUa(�@��_w�2�֒Ñ�5�"��]Q_�?�ر�hU��GS6�2���.�9�S�|��}�g�J�Ÿ���$7!�������|�TY�|�x�.L��~�ٹa>F�0*�ЌH�(��+���"�-�!�� �RB�_)Rc��U�r�C��8�L�ھoˬbɱ����@Ap��^� �M�y��bh��9��}i%�����j�4H���q�&� ��r��z>Nh������+bL^/���h�pb��I��e�ҳ�"B�d���{^�qxu�B�-U�{_�w�9��é�3/���t�B_ � ��B_���rx��5 a�F�8D�ᚥ8�� �*Aj��}s(�Y�k�+j��$�W��Sb��U[ZU����0�=�V�{�E"Mp�������K�z��R ~�V�v���Nݸ_��m'K���Vѹ��x�*��&`$��d=`A�΢ glbM̨�l� u��h���4�B The borders are raised beds constructed in the direction of the field's slope. Border Irrigation - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt / .pptx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. A flow is introduced at one edge of the field and Borders can be up to 800 m or more in length and 3-30 m wide depending on a variety of factors. over the entire border, a minimum allowable inflow rate 39 Fig. %�쏢 Soil erosion can take the form of ... in the outer part of center pivot systems, excessive furrow or border inflows, and uncontrolled tailwater or runoff. 10. Surface irrigation is where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. }X���Sn� a�%��ؒ�P��X4���(cCl���_@Y&���,�3>���,�z���ӝ��Ao����tf���2*���mϦ��m��Ճ�J)�]ݟJ1����U��\�WZl�'gc�o������H`�������u�o���ơ2�j\n/�׫GD=��n���Բ0d��x���e*i 0000001047 00000 n Figure 4 illustrates a typical border configuration in which a field is divided into sloping borders. The field slope between dikes Lr���\���,W`L-ʶ�ؔi�!��m�#2��d�L�E��"3l�Y��[d�-2� �r@ʶ��d��@vb�g��adB\|pٿ>����^��/3�+�6\��Kjc�?���F@��1������oN���/�)���y*�1�nͿWqj�$�����!��Tu��H U������{�߱��mx0e�=�J�q�°�f��t#���J���?�ߔ;u��gW�+ Border irrigation can be viewed as an extension of basin irrigation to sloping, long rectangular or contoured field shapes, with free draining conditions at the lower end. 0000008998 00000 n 0000006286 00000 n �� �j����d�]�V���6����dm?l}8�}I�XJVVF�E��c_�,7�k���0���U/p�TD�]mk�������v�Z�| �`ّ�D���LxPB��y.���n����R�ŵg�^wn!��J���4b�����B4�|sr�LD��x&s��/P*���u�t'e�Jp����A��2� ����Y岙u��؁�7���fk�^��۳ �����sw �@�HYW0��d�&�­�y��%�%���8�ΰȿ°��͔���W7[F�X���4�� u�p��B�X���Z�/��M�Ɲz��,�D��iΫz��ɢ��ݖ�~��*^xIj:`�����7�w�Gs��%��H��-�'� > stream o Basin Irrigation System Design o Border Irrigation System Design 2.1. %PDF-1.3 The general difference is that basin irrigation involves applying water to a nearly level field and may include ponding for extended time periods. Principles of surface irrigation border check furrow (and bed) contour In your workbook, complete activity 1 on the important principles of Surface Irrigation Methods Their main classification of surface methods is as follows: (1)Free flooding (2)Border flooding (3) Check flooding (4) Basin flooding (5) Furrow irrigation method (6) Drip irrigation method. 0000003375 00000 n Border strip irrigation (or simply ‘border irrigation’) is a controlled surface flooding method of applying irrigation water. <> 5 Maximum, minimum, and proposed initial q0 Table 2 Maximum allowable inflow rates for irrigation borders (National Engineering Handbook 1974) qmin must be used. Border irrigation is a type of surface irrigation where the field is divided into strips separated by border ridges running down the gradient of the field. Border irrigation is generally best suited to the larger mechanized farms as it is designed to produce long uninterrupted field lengths for ease of machine operations. H�|UM��8�����'��3;Zi����V{ �I�ҭ��[�D��ZI�zU��Ճ" 0000005214 00000 n The object of border strip irrigation is to advance a sheet of water down a narrow strip between low ridges or borders and to get the water into the soil as the sheet advances. FLOOD IRRIGATION includes several methods: Border strip, basin, contour or bench border irrigation, flooding from contour ditches, wild flooding, and border ditch. The field is divided into smaller unit areas or beds measuring 10 to 100 sq metre or even more. ;��:�Cb*I��Wk� �ض~|�����~p��g�ɳ��ɳ~�ݵ?y��g?�����~��o?���_~����o_�����������ߏ��߾��Z}�;'?��������������{�yv~����?���k���_�u������� �4Gd�)��$ ��)@&8"Ӏ�#0����T���2�0�r�(��P�I�ȀG���G��� �#kj� ő5���9���$G��� �#k` ɑ5 0��Ț@r�&��"�Y� H��� H��i�$G�4#p��� �#kZ` ��5-0��Ț@pdM 8r�5l���i�Gִ� ��� Lr���\���,W`L-��Z~ g�5�_a�p6�)2��d�L�E��"3l�Y��[d�-2� �r � ��A��`��[d�-2��e�̱E��"\�����wdC����A;B�A+z���-����7�X��/P&l��^ �`�W�ʄ� The use of surface irrigation on moderately. Using experimental data these models are evaluated and compared with each other in regard to their ability to predict recession flow. In the Punjab, border irrigation is used to irrigate wheat crops grown over 90% of the cultivated area. The water’s level may be raised at the head of the border by placing a small dam across the distribution channel just downstream from the border. 2.2.2 Border irrigation. The irrigated areas between dikes may be 3–30 m wide and up to 400 m long. �5�ȡ��o[�������w��C�*Թ� �D!�@�2��%�9�N?�OU�����}��_ٷ�KB����:^��cб��O�ѱC�3%�@���Q�ѱ��+4�[���� +cXS�C�9��]Y ���� c8�F�9�l��i1��(V��)��|���B��>�{�słz����I'C�4w���Tۥ���|���d���bY26|0 ֌�kb�IjИa'`���p�A}Q�S��8�X���Q`"rv��`���V���D�b�ļБ��f�.���Jϋȯ �t�f0#T��6��A��G�ek�۽S��4S���HR�9�H�g�9�S�&���ơv4p`��q�]� 5 ing a slight change in the borders, so that the latitude as regards rotation is rather wide. These strips are separated by low levees (or borders). 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The computation proceeds as follows (33.18) Example 33.1: Design a border irrigation system for the following conditions: Field length, L = 200 m. Field width, W = 100 m, BORDER RIVERS (NSW) CATCHMENT IRRIGATION PROFILE 1 1. This temporary dam may be earthen, a sheet metal dam inserted into the bottom and sides of the channel, or a plastic sheet dam. 0000004296 00000 n The most favorable soil for borders is a free-working loam several feet deep, underlain by a more or less impervious subsoil. border irrigation basics ��. 0000003353 00000 n 0000000971 00000 n 0000006022 00000 n ��X�g[ }��zt*L�5��r�^�ȈZA��ܵ�S�9T`c�R2z�����=U���". 0000006044 00000 n Activity 1. The various irrigation methods such as border, basin, contour, furrow, sub, sprinkle, and drip or trickle are described; and conditions are given for selection of the appropriate method to use. If t d < r req the irrigation is not complete and the cutoff time must be increased so the intake at the inlet is equal to the required depth. H�b```e``�)�@���� �96�}���b�i�Pυ����mC��;���-���P��=��C�ו��'�+�5.�1Y!_��I�0�����5nț(xU^�ve`pq �ʠ���� ��1 M���t@$�9"�� {�l5[��o��r`�یm%KY��;(��f�K��)W�KRI��,I�ո�i�rF[7��,,�zBk�J���Ą���ѻ.sa�#����4ޜێ+r�Z)3��}A&�o�?U#j��5�о��L8˥�æ�����Մ�L��W� ���R endstream endobj 182 0 obj 780 endobj 183 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /ArialMT /FontBBox [ -250 -250 1072 1000 ] /Flags 32 /CapHeight 724 /Ascent 905 /Descent 212 /StemV 80 /ItalicAngle 0 /XHeight 506 /Leading 33 /AvgWidth 441 /MaxWidth 1294 >> endobj 184 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /BaseFont /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FirstChar 0 /LastChar 255 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 185 0 R /Widths [ 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 250 333 555 500 500 1000 833 278 333 333 500 570 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 333 333 570 570 570 500 930 722 667 722 722 667 611 778 778 389 500 778 667 944 722 778 611 778 722 556 667 722 722 1000 722 722 667 333 278 333 581 500 333 500 556 444 556 444 333 500 556 278 333 556 278 833 556 500 556 556 444 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 394 220 394 520 778 500 778 333 500 500 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 1000 778 667 778 778 333 333 500 500 350 500 1000 333 1000 389 333 722 778 444 722 250 333 500 500 500 500 220 500 333 747 300 500 570 333 747 500 400 549 300 300 333 576 540 250 333 300 330 500 750 750 750 500 722 722 722 722 722 722 1000 722 667 667 667 667 389 389 389 389 722 722 778 778 778 778 778 570 778 722 722 722 722 722 611 556 500 500 500 500 500 500 722 444 444 444 444 444 278 278 278 278 500 556 500 500 500 500 500 549 500 556 556 556 556 500 556 500 ] >> endobj 185 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /FontName /TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT /FontBBox [ -250 -250 1089 1000 ] /Flags 34 /CapHeight 712 /Ascent 891 /Descent 216 /StemV 136 /ItalicAngle 0 /XHeight 498 /Leading 42 /AvgWidth 427 /MaxWidth 1273 >> endobj 186 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /BaseFont /ArialMT /FirstChar 0 /LastChar 255 /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /FontDescriptor 183 0 R /Widths [ 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 278 278 355 556 556 889 667 191 333 333 389 584 278 333 278 278 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 278 278 584 584 584 556 1015 667 667 722 722 667 611 778 722 278 500 667 556 833 722 778 667 778 722 667 611 722 667 944 667 667 611 278 278 278 469 556 333 556 556 500 556 556 278 556 556 222 222 500 222 833 556 556 556 556 333 500 278 556 500 722 500 500 500 334 260 334 584 750 556 750 222 556 333 1000 556 556 333 1000 667 333 1000 750 611 750 750 222 222 333 333 350 556 1000 333 1000 500 333 944 750 500 667 278 333 556 556 556 556 260 556 333 737 370 556 584 333 737 552 400 549 333 333 333 576 537 278 333 333 365 556 834 834 834 611 667 667 667 667 667 667 1000 722 667 667 667 667 278 278 278 278 722 722 778 778 778 778 778 584 778 722 722 722 722 667 667 611 556 556 556 556 556 556 889 500 556 556 556 556 278 278 278 278 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 549 611 556 556 556 556 500 556 500 ] >> endobj 187 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 182 0 R >> stream As the 171 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 173 /H [ 1047 362 ] /L 466824 /E 70015 /N 9 /T 463285 >> endobj xref 171 31 0000000016 00000 n H��Uˎ�0������4�~c/��E��n�N▄�L���L��*R��s_�{@��o�=mo�VhC �J�A�qͱF��&kw>A)`���E��X� t[C��������� �1f Irrigation induced soil erosion is a problem on specific soils in certain areas. 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